If we do speak in this way, of motivating and normative reasons, this should not be taken to suggest that there are two sorts of reason, the sort that motivate and the sort that are good. She can concede that an agent who acts according to his epistemic perspective but guided by a false belief acts rationally, but deny that acting rationally requires that the agent act for normative reasons.
Another question is whether they depend on your knowledge and beliefs. Don't civil servants such as teachers and doctors count as agents of an occupying or oppressive state. By contrast, it might be possible to give a justification for poisoning the guests: Moreover, a fact will seem a reason for me to act only in combination with other facts: These considerations against a three-part classification of reasons, though plausible, are not decisive.
And, for an oppressed people, there is no justifiable defense for aggression so wars for independence are always justified. To return to our example, we can explain why Othello kills Desdemona by citing his wanting to defend his honour and his believing that, given that Desdemona has been unfaithful, killing her is the only way to do so.
So the justifying belief is: The truly naive message is the one that says war will forever be in human nature,Humans are different we have the ability to rationalize, which is Ironically the same trait in us that causes us to justify genocide and to twist the image of war into this patriotic crusade that people want to believe in but it is that same rationality that drives us into innovation, the same rationality that that tels us that war is pointless.
And the justified belief is: But are these explanations really elliptical. Oxford University Press, 13— It will then present the case for treating motivating and explanatory reasons separately. The imagery says what the Gospels say: But this interpretation amounts to abandoning psychologism because the contents of mental states are not themselves mental states.
In much the same way arguments and explanations may be confused with each other, as may explanations and justifications. This [normative constraint] requires that a motivating reason, that in the light of which one acts, must be the sort of thing that is capable of being among the reasons in favour of so acting; it must, in this sense, be possible to act for a good reason.
In that case, the justifiers are the woman's awareness of the perfume and the lipstick, and the belief that is justified is her belief that her husband is having an affair. And non-psychologism does not seem to have a ready answer to what the motivating reason is in these cases.
Because the concept is somewhat technical, further clarification is needed. Justification is by faith alone. Against this suggestion, a defender of psychologism for explanatory reasons might urge that these explanations are elliptical and when fully spelled out their explanans the part of the explanation that does the explaining contains facts about what she knew or believed.
Furthermore, groups that resort to terrorism play into the hands of their opponents; states suffering from terrorism can win powerful support from similarly affected nations, such as the USA, in combating this threat.
But for Paul, forensics and organics, though distinct, were inseparable. They have reasons for their actions and simple human desires like us Subjects[ edit ] Justification focuses on beliefs.
If so, poisoning them with the cake may have been the right thing to do and, depending on whether our agent was aware of the relevant facts and acted guided by them, it may be that he was justified in poisoning them.
What does it mean to be justified, sanctified and what is its relationship to the law? There are three stages for a Christian. Justification, sanctification and glorification.
Feb 13, · Can an intrinsically evil act be justified by a good purpose? But the intended end or purpose for which that choice is made does not determine or change the moral object. An act with an evil moral object, chosen for a good purpose, is nevertheless intrinsically evil and always immoral.
which action can be justified by the political philosophy expressed in the Declaration of Independence? a group of rebels tries to overthrow a repressive government according to the Declaration of Independence, a government's power comes from?
Can war ever be justified? This question is not that easy to answer. This question is not that easy to answer.
Many philosophers, politicians or just ordinary people in the past and in the present try to come up with an answer, but there is no simple answer to this question such as "yes" or "no".
As for the justification of action, the objectivist can deny that the actions of agents who act in ignorance or guided by a mistaken belief are justified. Whether the action is justified, the objectivist will say, depends purely on whether the facts make it the right thing to do, and not on the agent’s beliefs.
The belief that a war can exist which is completely just, has been around for many centuries. Philosophers have argued since the time of Cicero on how actions can be justified, and have written many papers on the subject.How actions can be justified does